By Julianne McKinney
By Julianne McKinney, Director
Electronic Surveillance Project
Association of National Security Alumni
Silver Spring, Maryland
The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present—and is gravely to be regarded. Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite.
[President Dwight D. Eisenhower, January 17, 1961]
Covert actions are counterproductive and damaging to the national interest of the United States. They are inimical to the operation of an effective national intelligence system, and corruptive of civil liberties, including the functioning of the judiciary and a free press. Most importantly, they contradict the principles of democracy, national self-determination and international law to which the United States is publicly committed.
[Credo of the Association of National Security Alumni]
Director, Electronic Surveillance Project
In February 1974, Georgetown University’s Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) hosted discussions on the plight of dissenters in the Soviet Union, and on the means by which the U.S. Government might most effectively intervene. Highlights of these discussions are reported in Understanding the Solzhenitzyn Affair: Dissent and its Control in the USSR (CSIS, 1974).
PART I - THE PROBLEM SURFACES
PART II - OVERT AND COVERT HARASSMENT
There can never be any justification for torture. It creates an escalation of violence in the internal affairs of states. It spreads like a contagious disease from country to country. It has lasting effects on the mental and physical health of the victim and brutalizes the torturer. It is our fundamental duty as human beings to express what is surely the conscience of humanity and to eradicate this evil.
[Amnesty International, February 1990, in the context of the U.S. Government’s continuing failure to ratify the U.N. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, dated December 10, 1984]